Fibromyalgia is difficult to diagnose, partly because no diagnostic tests for the disease exist and partly because a number of other conditions (both treatable and life-threatening) have similar symptoms. To diagnose fibromyalgia, physicians apply pressure to a series of "tender points" throughout the body and ask the patient if it feels painful. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for fibromyalgia are the most commonly used in clinical and therapeutic research. The accepted diagnostic criteria require that spontaneous pain be present for over three month's duration along the spine and in all four quadrants of the body. About Duloxetine
While duloxetine's mechanism of action in humans is not fully known, it is believed to affect both serotonin and norepinephrine/noradrenaline mediated nerve signaling in the brain and the spinal cord. Based on pre-clinical studies, duloxetine is a reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine/noradrenaline. Scientists believe its effect on pain perception is due to increasing the activity of serotonin and norepinephrine in the central nervous system. Duloxetine is approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder and diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain in many countries and is approved in some countries for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence and generalised anxiety disorder. Duloxetine is approved only for adults 18 and over. There is a possibility of an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children and young adults treated with antidepressants. Patients should call their doctor right away if they experience worsening depression symptoms, unusual changes in behaviour or thoughts of suicide, especially at the beginning of treatment or after a change in dose. Patients taking duloxetine may experience dizziness or fainting upon standing. The most common side effects of duloxetine include:
For depression: Nausea, dry mouth, headache, insomnia, diarrhoea
For diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: Nausea, somnolence (sleepiness), fatigue, headache, dizziness
For generalised anxiety disorder: Nausea, fatigue, dry mouth, drowsiness, constipation, insomnia, decreased appetite, hyperhidrosis (excessive perspiration), decreased libido, vomiting, ejaculation delay and erectile dysfunction.
For stress urinary incontinence: Nausea, dry mouth, fatigue
In November 2002, Eli Lilly and Company and Boehringer Ingelheim signed a long-term agreement to jointly develop and commercialize duloxetine hydrochloride. This partnership covers neuroscience indications in most countries outside of the United States and Japan, with few exceptions. About Eli Lilly and Company
Lilly, a leading innovation-driven corporation, is developing a growing portfolio of best-in-class pharmaceutical products by applying the latest research from its own worldwide laboratories and from collaborations with eminent scientific organizations. Headquartered in Indianapolis, Ind., Lilly provides answers - through medicines and information - for some of the world`s most urgent medical needs. About Boehringer Ingelheim
The Boehringer Ingelheim group is one of the world's 20 leading pharmaceutical companies. Headquartered in Ingelheim, Germany, it operates globally with 135 affiliates in 47 countries and almost 38,900 employees. Since it was founded in 1885, the family-owned company has been committed to researching, developing, manufacturing and marketing novel products of high therapeutic value for human and veterinary medicine. In 2007, Boehringer Ingelheim posted net sales of 10.9 billion euro while spending one fifth of net sales in its largest business segment Prescription Medicines on research and development. For more information please visit www.boehringer-ingelheim.com. References:
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